Instruction

Instruction

Published: 10/23/2018 3:20 PM

How will they learn it?

Tier I is the highly effective, culturally responsive, evidence-based core or universal instruction, provided to all students in the general education classroom. It is the moral imperative that all teachers implement evidence-based curriculum and/or strategies with fidelity for both academic and behavioral instruction.

Schools and districts should use the Strategic Evaluation of Key Core Work Processes: Design and Deploy Instruction needs assessment tool to evaluate the current state of intentional planning and delivery of quality instruction.

Diagnostics

Do you know what highly effective, evidence-based, core instruction should look like?  Are at least 80% of students succeeding at this level of instruction in your school/classroom?  Reference the interactive and printable diagnostic tools for core instruction at the school and classroom level.  The classroom level diagnostic provides the data needed to determine school wide next steps for novice reduction and therefore should be completed first.

Hattie’s Barometer of Influence

The work of John Hattie and his research on influences that evidence the highest degree of impact on reducing less than proficient performance focuses on the measurement, growth or decline, that strategies have on the classroom and student learning. There are strategies that we know impact student learning at greater levels than other strategies, and ALL strategies do not impact learning equally. Hattie says ALMOST anything works, “all that is needed to enhance achievement is a pulse.” We need to identify a level of evidence that might be considered the minimum level for ensuring the “hinge point” and strategies that are really working to increase student learning.  These strategies, in order to be most effective, will NOT only have to be implemented, but implemented with high levels of fidelity.

Here is an illustration of the Hattie’s effect sizes and his barometer of influence, with explanation for each colored segment of the barometer.

  • Orange: up to .40: An effect size of .40 represents a school year’s growth over the course of one school year. Schools that use effect sizes to measure student progress can maximize their impact on student outcomes.
  • Yellow: An effect size of .0 - .15 indicates progress that a student can make without proper strategy instruction and guidance, where students are learning on their own through natural inquisitiveness and strategies done ineffectively and inconsistently.
  • Red: An effect size below .0 represents strategies and actions that students may be exposed to that have reverse consequences on their learning.
  • Blue: An effect size of greater than .40 is the Zone of Desired Effects. Hattie’s research shows that there are many influences, when done with fidelity, will give students an opportunity to grow and have one, two and sometimes three years of progress. Schools that use effect sizes to measure student progress can maximize their impact on student outcomes.

Zone of Proximal Development 

Lev Vygotsky was a Russian theorist who is best known for his work with the zone of proximal development. You most likely studied his work in pre-service days when you learned about the craft of instruction. The Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) is an important concept that relates to the difference between what a child can achieve independently and what a child can achieve with guidance and encouragement from a skilled partner. It’s the sweet spot– it’s the only place where learning can truly occur.

High Yield Strategies

Through his research and collegial work, Robert Marzano identified and categorized strategies with the greatest positive effect on increasing student achievement. These nine (9) strategies are applicable to all subject area and grade levels. Incorporating these strategies into lesson planning is most effective when strategy usage has a tight alignment with the lesson’s learning target. Reference Marzano’s Nine Instructional Strategies.

Universal Design for Learning

The goal of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is to remove barriers to learning and increase student success rates by employing a variety of teaching methods to improve student achievement.  UDL functions on three (3) main principles: 

  • Representation – providing information in multiple formats
  • Actions and Expression – providing multiple ways for students to interact with learning materials and demonstrate understanding
  • Engagement – providing different ways to motivate students

UDL focuses on classroom flexibility in order to provide equal access to content and allow multiple manners for students to demonstrate understanding. Reference the National Center on Universal Design for Learning website for additional information.

Instruction Support

This Co-Teaching Principles, Practices and Pragmatics Handbook highlights co-teaching strategies which support best practices of co-teaching in the classroom and can help teachers understand the impact co-teaching can have on Novice Reduction.

The Culturally Responsive Teaching Matters document provides an in-depth explanation of what CRI is, key features of this strategy, and how this strategy can assist with Novice Reduction.

Literacy Support

Reference the Achieve the Core ELA/Literacy Instructional Practice Guide: Coaching Tool to help build understanding and experience with standards.

Literacy Design Collaborative (LDC) is an instructional framework for implementing Kentucky’s Academic Standards and improving teacher effectiveness by design: the instructional cycle includes teacher collaboration in designing instruction, analyzing student work, and adjusting instructional practice based upon data and lessons learned about students and their needs. LDC empowers teachers to build students’ literacy skills and understanding of science, history, literature, and other important academic content through meaningful reading, writing and other learning experiences. The building block of LDC is the module, a 2-4 week instructional cycle based upon a worthy, compelling, and rigorous student task.

Math Support

Reference the Achieve the Core Mathematics Instructional Practice Guide: Coaching Tool to access a math instructional module to help build understanding and experience with standards.

Math Design Collaborative (MDC) is an instructional framework for implementing Kentucky’s Academic Standards and improving teacher effectiveness by design: the instructional cycle includes teacher collaboration in designing instruction, analyzing student work, and adjusting instructional practice based upon data and lessons learned about students and their needs.


​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​Susan Greer
Office of Continuous Improvement and Support
300 Sower Blvd., 5th Floor
Frankfort, KY 40601
(502) 564-5130
Fax (502) 564-8149
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Related Resources

Metacognitive Strategies (Effect size: .69) video details how this strategy is a critically important, yet often overlooked strategy for learning. Effective learning involves planning and goal-setting, monitoring one's progress, and adapting as needed. All of these activities are metacognitive in nature. By teaching students these skills - all of which can be learned - we can improve student learning. Total time 3:01.

Direct/Explicit Instruction Model (Effect size: .59) is a research-based instructional strategy where students are actively engaged participants in their learning. It involves teacher creativity and design. Strategy selection is based on student need, student data, and student performance. Students self-regulate and own their learning.

Algebra 1.5 Benefits Students at Casey County High School video featuring Kayla Allen, teacher at Casey County High School, shares how participating in Algebra 1.5 (transition course between Geometry and Algebra 2) benefits different types of students. She describes the positive effect the Algebra 1.5 class has on student EOC performance, and how ACT math scores have been impacted. Total time 2:04.

Pulaski County High School teachers, Emily Adams and Michelle Copley, explain Kagan strategies and how they have implemented the strategies in their math classrooms. The Using Kagan Strategies to Improve Instruction video includes the four principles of the Kagan structures and how they can enrich classroom activities through cooperative learning. The teachers share the benefits of using Kagan strategies to improve classroom management. Total time 7:18.

Lesson Planning Templates

Effective planning and creation of functional lesson plans are imperative to strengthening instructional delivery, and impact student achievement. 

Helpful Links

To see the connection between CHETL and TPGES, please refer to the Appendix A Matrix 

Characteristics of Highly Effective Teaching (CHETL): KDE developed components which focus on the instructional core

Design and Deliver Instruction YouTube video

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