Do you know what highly effective, evidence-based, core
instruction should look like? Are at least 80% of students succeeding
at this level of instruction in your school/classroom? Reference the interactive and printable diagnostic tools for
core instruction at the school and classroom level. The classroom level
diagnostic provides the data needed to determine school wide next steps
for novice reduction and therefore should be completed first.
Hattie’s Barometer of Influence
The work of John Hattie and his research on influences that evidence the highest degree of impact on reducing less than proficient performance focuses on the measurement, growth or decline, that strategies have on the classroom and student learning. There are strategies that we know impact student learning at greater levels than other strategies, and ALL strategies do not impact learning equally. Hattie says ALMOST anything works, “all that is needed to enhance achievement is a pulse.” We need to identify a level of evidence that might be considered the minimum level for ensuring the “hinge point” and strategies that are really working to increase student learning. These strategies, in order to be most effective, will NOT only have to be implemented, but implemented with high levels of fidelity.
Here is an illustration of the Hattie’s effect sizes and his barometer of influence, with explanation for each colored segment of the barometer.
Orange: up to .40: An effect size of .40 represents a school year’s growth over the course of one school year. Schools that use effect sizes to measure student progress can maximize their impact on student outcomes.
Yellow: An effect size of .0 - .15 indicates progress that a student can make without proper strategy instruction and guidance, where students are learning on their own through natural inquisitiveness and strategies done ineffectively and inconsistently.
Red: An effect size below .0 represents strategies and actions that students may be exposed to that have reverse consequences on their learning.
Blue: An effect size of greater than .40 is the Zone of Desired Effects. Hattie’s research shows that there are many influences, when done with fidelity, will give students an opportunity to grow and have one, two and sometimes three years of progress. Schools that use effect sizes to measure student progress can maximize their impact on student outcomes.
Zone of Proximal Development
Lev Vygotsky was a Russian theorist who is best known for his work with the zone of proximal development. You most likely studied his work in pre-service days when you learned about the craft of instruction. The Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) is an important concept that relates to the difference between what a child can achieve independently and what a child can achieve with guidance and encouragement from a skilled partner. It’s the sweet spot– it’s the only place where learning can truly occur.
High Yield Strategies
Through his research and collegial work, Robert Marzano identified and categorized strategies with the greatest positive effect on increasing student achievement. These nine (9) strategies are applicable to all subject area and grade levels. Incorporating these strategies into lesson planning is most effective when strategy usage has a tight alignment with the lesson’s learning target. Reference Marzano’s Nine Instructional Strategies.
Universal Design for Learning
The goal of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is to remove barriers to learning and increase student success rates by employing a variety of teaching methods to improve student achievement. UDL functions on three (3) main principles:
Representation – providing information in multiple formats
Actions and Expression – providing multiple ways for students to interact with learning materials and demonstrate understanding
Engagement – providing different ways to motivate students
UDL focuses on classroom flexibility in order to provide equal access to content and allow multiple manners for students to demonstrate understanding. Reference the National Center on Universal Design for Learning website for additional information.
This Co-Teaching Principles, Practices and Pragmatics Handbook highlights
co-teaching strategies which support best practices of co-teaching in
the classroom and can help teachers understand the impact co-teaching
can have on Novice Reduction.
The Culturally Responsive Teaching Matters document provides an in-depth
explanation of what CRI is, key features of this strategy, and how this
strategy can assist with Novice Reduction.
Achieve the Core ELA/Literacy Instructional Practice Guide: Coaching Tool to help build understanding and experience with standards.
Literacy Design Collaborative (LDC) is an instructional framework for implementing Kentucky’s Academic Standards and improving teacher effectiveness by design: the instructional cycle includes teacher collaboration in designing instruction, analyzing student work, and adjusting instructional practice based upon data and lessons learned about students and their needs. LDC empowers teachers to build students’ literacy skills and understanding of science, history, literature, and other important academic content through meaningful reading, writing and other learning experiences. The building block of LDC is the module, a 2-4 week instructional cycle based upon a worthy, compelling, and rigorous student task.
Reference the Achieve the Core Mathematics Instructional Practice Guide: Coaching Tool to access a math instructional module to help build understanding and experience with standards.
Math Design Collaborative (MDC) is an instructional framework for implementing Kentucky’s Academic Standards and improving teacher effectiveness by design: the instructional cycle includes teacher collaboration in designing instruction, analyzing student work, and adjusting instructional practice based upon data and lessons learned about students and their needs.